Operational Amplifiers :
Here are basic opamp configurations
that have also been made into
Interactive Tutorials. These circuits
like Inverting Amp, Non-Inverting Amp
and Instrumentation Amp are Building
With a few Op-Amps and a regulated
Power supply, many Instrumentation and
Process control equipment can be
designed. The Human Brain understands
Numbers, Quantity and it regulation
very well ! On the right you can see a
analog controller based on opamps and
discrete devices. A Heater, Fan and
Motor is regulated, controlled and
timed for a process.
Analog is about numbers, the circuits
can be understood and designed
mathematically or empirically.
Designing and Building a True RMS
Rectifier with Op-Amps, will help a
designer digest many Op-Amp
Read this to learn to use Op-Amps - Basic
Semiconductor Circuits Manual
Things you ought to know about
OpAmp part numbers from various
semiconductor companies are designed
for both General purpose and special
applications. Some have to be
cost-effective for consumer low-cost
equipment, while others may be
advanced in specs, closing in on an
Instrumentation opamps are used for
accurate and low drift applications.
These Op-Amps have stringent
specifications and are used in the
fields like Aerospace or Medical
Electronics. A pre-amplifier for an FM
Radio may need to be low-priced. Test
Measurement needs Op-Amps which have
near ideal specs in the area of
measurement or application. CMOS
low-power devices are used when
designs are made for portable gadgets.
- Outputs cannot be Loaded beyond
the drive capacities, Note
Resistors and Output Load.
- Inputs draw a small bias current
and will load the signal sources,
- Op-Ams AF-RF or Switching
performance study with Slew rate
- Power consumption of some
Op-Amps are more and some very
less, choose wisely.
- Look for Standard Pin-Outs,
Price, Popularity and study Abs.
Max, AC and DC Specs.
- Use Packages with multiple
Op-Amps like LM324 to save board
space and assembly time.
- Op-Amps and its 1% MFR resistors
should have a separate supply and
far from hot parts.
- Ultra Low Offset Voltage is
required, when you wish to amplify
a DC level of say 500uV.
- Guard rings to be used for High
impedance inputs and EMI-RFI
Shielding for AF Amplifiers.
- Glass epoxy PCB, clean surface,
Pins and Tracks protected from
Moisture and Chemicals.
- Avoid Ground Loops, Have
regulated Low ripple Power
supplies. Dynamic Isolation.