Operational Amplifiers :
Here are basic opamp configurations
that have also been made into
Interactive Tutorials. These circuits
like Inverting Amp, Non-Inverting Amp
and Instrumentation Amp are Building
With a few Op-Amps and a regulated
Power supply, many Instrumentation and
Process control equipment can be
designed. The Human Brain understands
Numbers, Quantity and it regulation
very well ! On the right you can see a
analog controller based on opamps and
discrete devices. A Heater, Fan and
Motor is regulated, controlled and
timed for a process.
Polarity Analog Output Op-Amps
Analog is about numbers, the circuits
can be understood and designed
mathematically or empirically.
Designing and Building a True RMS
Rectifier with Op-Amps, will help a
designer digest many Op-Amp
Things you ought to know about
OpAmp part numbers from various
semiconductor companies are designed
for both General purpose and special
applications. Some have to be
cost-effective for consumer low-cost
equipment, while others may be
advanced in specs, closing in on an
CA3140 and CA3130 Special Opamps
Instrumentation opamps are used for
accurate and low drift applications.
These Op-Amps have stringent
specifications and are used in the
fields like Aerospace or Medical
Electronics. A pre-amplifier for an FM
Radio may need to be low-priced. Test
Measurement needs Op-Amps which have
near ideal specs in the area of
measurement or application. CMOS
low-power devices are used when
designs are made for portable gadgets.
- Outputs cannot be Loaded beyond
the drive capacities, Note
Resistors and Output Load.
- Inputs draw a small bias current
and will load the signal sources,
- Op-Ams AF-RF or Switching
performance study with Slew rate
- Power consumption of some
Op-Amps are more and some very
less, choose wisely.
- Look for Standard Pin-Outs,
Price, Popularity and study Abs.
Max, AC and DC Specs.
- Use Packages with multiple
Op-Amps like LM324 to save board
space and assembly time.
- Op-Amps and its 1% MFR resistors
should have a separate supply and
far from hot parts.
- Ultra Low Offset Voltage is
required, when you wish to amplify
a DC level of say 500uV.
- Guard rings to be used for High
impedance inputs and EMI-RFI
Shielding for AF Amplifiers.
- Glass epoxy PCB, clean surface,
Pins and Tracks protected from
Moisture and Chemicals.
- Avoid Ground Loops, Have
regulated Low ripple Power
supplies. Dynamic Isolation.